ITIL 2011

Why was ITIL updated?

Since publication of the 2007 editions we have received over 500 suggested changes, plus additional suggestions on roles, process flows, inputs and outputs from both users and trainers. 
All publications have been through the continual service improvement (CSI) process, and ultimately, this is what makes ITIL what it is – a best-practice framework. 
We are committed to the principles of ITIL and key to this is CSI. This update is a direct result of feedback from the community that reads, uses and trains from this guidance. We have updated the guidance based on feedback from key stakeholders, and the end result is guidance that is easier to navigate, read, translate, adopt and teach.

The Service Lifecycle

ITIL is organized around a service lifecycle which includes service strategy, service design, service transition, service operation and continual service improvement.

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1) Service Strategy

Process Objective: To decide on a strategy to serve customers. Starting from an assessment of customer needs and the market place, the Service Strategy process determines which services the IT organization is to offer and what capabilities need to be developed. Its ultimate goal is to make the IT organization think and act in a strategic manner.

Understanding who the IT customers are, the service offerings that are required to meet the customers’ needs, the IT capabilities and resources that are required to develop these offerings, and the requirements for executing them successfully. Driven by strategy throughout the course of delivery and support for the service, the IT service provider must always try to ensure that the cost of delivery is consistent with the value delivered to the customer.

a- Service Management for IT Services

Process Objective: To assess the service provider’s offerings, capabilities, competitors as well as current and potential market spaces in order to develop a strategy to serve customers. Once the strategy has been defined, Strategy Management for IT Services is also responsible for ensuring the implementation of the strategy.

 b- Service Portfolio Management

Service Portfolio Management ensures that the service provider has the right mix of services to meet required business outcomes at an appropriate level of investment.

 c-Financial Management for IT Services

Process objective is to manage the service provider’s budgeting, accounting and charging requirements.

d- Demand Management

Demand Management works with Capacity Management to ensure that the service provider has sufficient capacity to meet the required demand.

 e- Business Relation Management

Business Relationship Management identifies the needs of existing and potential customers and ensures that appropriate services are developed to meet those needs.

 2) Service Design

Process Objective: To design new IT services. The scope of the process includes the design of new services, as well as changes and improvements to existing ones.

Service designensures that new and changed services are designed effectively to meet customer expectations. The technology and architecture required to meet customer needs cost-effectively are an integral part of service design, as are the processes required to manage the services. Service management systems and tools to adequately monitor and support new modified services must be considered, as well as mechanisms for measuring the service levels, the technology, and the efficiency and effectiveness of processes.

a- Design Coordination

Process Objective: To coordinate all service design activities, processes and resources. Design coordination ensures the consistent and effective design of new or changed IT services, service management information systems, architectures, technology, processes, information and metrics.

 b-Service Catalogue Management

Process Objective: To ensure that a Service Catalogue is produced and maintained, containing accurate information on all operational services and those being prepared to be run operationally. Service Catalogue Management provides vital information for all other Service Management processes: Service details, current status and the services’ interdependencies.

 c-Service Level Management

Process Objective: To negotiate Service Level Agreements with the customers and to design services in accordance with the agreed service level targets. Service Level Management is also responsible for ensuring that all Operational Level Agreements and Underpinning Contracts are appropriate, and to monitor and report on service levels.

 d- Risk Management

Process Objective: To identify, assess and control risks. This includes analyzing the value of assets to the business, identifying threats to those assets, and evaluating how vulnerable each asset is to those threats.

e- Capacity Management

Process Objective: To ensure that the capacity of IT services and the IT infrastructure is able to deliver the agreed service level targets in a cost effective and timely manner. Capacity Management considers all resources required to deliver the IT service, and plans for short, medium and long term business requirements.

 f- Availibility Management

Process Objective: To define, analyze, plan, measure and improve all aspects of the availability of IT services. Availability Management is responsible for ensuring that all IT infrastructure, processes, tools, roles etc. are appropriate for the agreed availability targets.

 g- IT Service Continuity Management

 Process Objective: To manage risks that could seriously impact IT services. ITSCM ensures that the IT service provider can always provide minimum agreed Service Levels, by reducing the risk from disaster events to an acceptable level and planning for the recovery of IT services. ITSCM should be designed to support Business Continuity Management.

 h- Information Security Management

Process Objective: To ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of an organization’s information, data and IT services. Information Security Management usually forms part of an organizational approach to security management which has a wider scope than the IT Service Provider.

i- Compliance Management

Process Objective: To ensure IT services, processes and systems comply with enterprise policies and legal requirements.

 j- Architectur Management

Process Objective: To define a blueprint for the future development of the technological landscape, taking into account the service strategy and newly available technologies.

 k- Supplier Management

Process Objective: To ensure that all contracts with suppliers support the needs of the business, and that all suppliers meet their contractual commitments.

 3) Service Transition

Process Objective: To build and deploy IT services. Service Transition also makes sure that changes to services and Service Management processes are carried out in a coordinated way.

Service transition phase of the lifecycle the design is built, tested and moved into production to enable the business customer to achieve the desired value. This phase addresses managing changes: controlling the assets and configuration items (the underlying components such as hardware, software etc.) associated with the new and changed systems; service validation; and testing and transition planning to ensure that users, support personnel and the production environment have been prepared for the release to production.

a- Change Management

Process Objective: To control the lifecycle of all Changes. The primary objective of Change Management is to enable beneficial Changes to be made, with minimum disruption to IT services.

 b- Change Evaluation

Process Objective: To assess major Changes, like the introduction of a new service or a substantial change to an existing service, before those Changes are allowed to proceed to the next phase in their lifecycle.

 c- Project Management (Transition Planning and Support)

Process Objective: To plan and coordinate the resources to deploy a major Release within the predicted cost, time and quality estimates.

 d- Application Development

Process Objective: To make available applications and systems which provide the required functionality for IT services. This process includes the development and maintenance of custom applications as well as the customization of products from software vendors.

 e- Release and Deployment Management

Process Objective: To plan, schedule and control the movement of releases to test and live environments. The primary goal of Release Management is to ensure that the integrity of the live environment is protected and that the correct components are released.

f- Service Validation and Testing

Process Objective: To ensure that deployed Releases and the resulting services meet customer expectations, and to verify that IT operations is able to support the new service.

 g-Service Asset and Configuration Management

Process Objective: To maintain information about Configuration Items required to deliver an IT service, including their relationships.

  h- Knowledge Management

Process Objective: To gather, analyze, store and share knowledge and information within an organization. The primary purpose of Knowledge Management is to improve efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge.

4) Service Operation

a- Event Management

Process Objective: To make sure CIs and services are constantly monitored, and to filter and categorize Events in order to decide on appropriate actions.

 b-Incident Management

Process Objective: To manage the lifecycle of all Incidents. The primary objective of Incident Management is to return the IT service to users as quickly as possible.

 c-Request Fulfilment

Process Objective: To fulfill Service Requests, which in most cases are minor (standard) Changes (e.g. requests to change a password) or requests for information.

 d-Access Management

Process Objective: To grant authorized users the right to use a service, while preventing access to non-authorized users. The Access Management processes essentially execute policies defined in Information Security Management. Access Management is sometimes also referred to as Rights Management or Identity Management.

e-Problem Management

Process Objective: To manage the lifecycle of all Problems. The primary objectives of Problem Management are to prevent Incidents from happening, and to minimize the impact of incidents that cannot be prevented. Proactive Problem Management analyzes Incident Records, and uses data collected by other IT Service Management processes to identify trends or significant Problems.

 f- IT Operations Control

Process Objective: To monitor and control the IT services and their underlying infrastructure. The process IT Operations Control executes day-to-day routine tasks related to the operation of infrastructure components and applications. This includes job scheduling, backup and restore activities, print and output management, and routine maintenance.

g-Facilities Management

Process Objective: To manage the physical environment where the IT infrastructure is located. Facilities Management includes all aspects of managing the physical environment, for example power and cooling, building access management, and environmental monitoring.

h-Application Management

Application Management is responsible for managing applications throughout their lifecycle.

 i-Technical Management

Technical Management provides technical expertise and support for the management of the IT infrastructure.

Process Objective: To make sure that IT services are delivered effectively and efficiently. The Service Operation process includes fulfilling user requests, resolving service failures, fixing problems, as well as carrying out routine operational tasks.

Service operation delivers the service on an ongoing basis, overseeing the daily overall health of the service. This includes managing disruptions to service through rapid restoration after incidents; determining the root cause of problems and detecting trends associated with recurring issues; handling daily routine end-user requests; and managing service access.

5) Continual Service Improvement (CSI).

Process Objective: To use methods from quality management in order to learn from past successes and failures. The Continual Service Improvement process aims to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of IT processes and services, in line with the concept of continual improvement adopted in ISO 20000.

CSI offers a mechanism for the IT organization to measure and improve the service levels, the technology and the efficiency and effectiveness of processes used in the overall management of services.

a-Service Review

Process Objective: To review business services and infrastructure services on a regular basis. The aim of this process is to improve service quality where necessary, and to identify more economical ways of providing a service where possible.

 b-Process Evaluation

Process Objective: To evaluate processes on a regular basis. This includes identifying areas where the targeted process metrics are not reached, and holding regular benchmarkings, audits, maturity assessments and reviews.

 c-Definition of CSI Initiatives

Process Objective: To define specific initiatives aimed at improving services and processes, based on the results of service reviews and process evaluations. The resulting initiatives are either internal initiatives pursued by the service provider on his own behalf, or initiatives which require the customer’s cooperation.

 d- Monitoring of CSI Initiatives

Process Objective: To verify if improvement initiatives are proceeding according to plan, and to introduce corrective measures where necessary.


ITIL v3

What is Service Management?

To understand what service management is, we need to understand what is the meaning of service.

General definiton says:

A service is a means of delivering value to customers by facilitating the outcomes that customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs and risks.”

If we explain more simple, in the past, IT was defined by products.But it is not enoug now. Today’s customers want to and should concentrate on their business and should not have to care about the details of service delivery.To deal with the risks and costs of service creation and delivery are service provider’s job.

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Service Management is set of specialized capabilities for delivering value to customers in the form of services.Each service, process or infrastructure component has a lifecycle, and service management considers the entire lifecycle from strategy through design and transition to operation and continual improvement.

IT Service Management objectives are ;

-To align IT Services with the current and future needs of the Business and its Customers.
-To improve the quality of the IT services delivered.
-To reduce the long term cost of service provision.

There is some key elements about IT Service Management as follows:

  • People : Skills, Training, Communication
  • Processes : Actions, Activities, Changes, Goals
  • Products : Tools, Monitor, Measure, Improve
  • Partners : Specialist, Supplier

ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library)

ITIL is systematic approach to high quality IT service delivery and a public framework that describes best practice in IT service management. But what are best practices mean?

-Practices widely accepted and adopted,
-Tested plenty of times,
– May come from a number of source including: standards, public frameworks, academic research, proprietary knowledge.

 “ Think of ITIL not as a destination, but as a vehicle you can use to help you travel more quickly and efficiently on your ongoing journey of continuously improving service levels

ITIL developed in the 1980s in responding to growing dependence on IT by the UK Government’s Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) .  At first there was 40 publications. In 1990s, ITIL had started to used in The Netherlands. The Service Support and Service Delivery Books were redeveloped and version 2 of ITIL was released in 2001. After that ITIL was very popular and started to used rest of the world. In 2007, ITIL v3 was released much simplified and rationalised to 5 books. And also aligned with ISO20000 standard for service management.

ITIL Service Lifecycle

Each application and each service will be designed have to follows some phases which known as service lifecycle.

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There are 5 main phases:

  • Service Strategy
  • Service Design
  • Service Transition
  • Service Operation
  • Continual Service Improvement

1) Service Strategy:

IT service management includes how to determine the general strategies. The main purpose of creating strategies for clients is to be the best in the services offered. This phase have to provide answers for the following questions:

– What are we going to provide?
– Can we afford it?
– Can we provide enough of it?
– How do we gain competitive advantage?

There are some key processes and activities:

  • Financial Management: Aims to provide financial input to all processes. Control and monitoring of the investments is provided.
  • Service Portfolio Management: Aims to manage the risks by maximizing revenue.
  • Demand Management: Used for determination of the company needs by working closely with the business units. Prepared for the cost of the service pack to customer needs, in terms of quality and capacity ensures optimized.

 

2) Service Design:

This phase is concerned with the design of the service. This phase have to provide answers for the following questions:

– How are we going to provide it?
– How are we going to build it?
– How are we going to test it?
– How are we going to deploy it?

There are some key processes and activities:

  • Service Catalogue Management:  The goal of service catalogue management is to ensure the creation and maintenance of the service catalogue and that all information is precise and up-to-date concerning status, interfaces and dependencies in order to provide the service. The service portfolio contains all future requirements of services, information about the currently available services. The process also registers the status of all operative services or services in the pipeline.
  • Service Level Management: Unit business needs are clearly understood by the service provider and the service provider have the capacity to respond to these needs that provides control by working closely with business units.

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  • Capacity Management:  Capacity management deals with the optimal and economic usage of existing resources and makes future capacity requirements available in good time. Capacity management has to deal with the following questions: Cost vs. Capacity, Supply vs. Demand. 
  • Availability Management: The purpose of Availability Management is to provide a point of focus and management for all availability-related issues, relating to services, components and resources. The availability management process ensures that all operative services meet the agreed availability goals and that all new or changed services are created appropriately in order to meet the projected goals without affecting the existing services. Availability Management activities should consider the availability, reliability, maintainability and serviceability at both service and component level.
  • IT Service Continuity Management: The purpose of ITSCM is to maintain the appropriate on-going recovery capability within IT services to match the agreed needs, requirements and timescales of the business.  Enterprises must therefore prepare for situations when services are massively disrupted and perhaps unavailable for a lengthy period. Modern IT service continuity management puts the emphasis on prevention.
  • Information Security Management: ISM is to align IT security with business security and ensure that information security is effectively managed in all services. Focuses on protection of five basic qualities of information assets; Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability, Authenticity, Non-repudiation.

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  • Supplier Management: The supplier management must cover all suppliers and contracts required to deliver a service for the business. The relationship between supplier and service provider must be formally defined. However, depending upon the strategic importance of the supplier, provision must be made for greater integration of the supplier within the strategy planning or service design.

 

3) Service Transition:

This is phase of a service that has been designed as a guideline to ensure activation of the service. All elements are required for a service, technical and non-technical, located at Service Transition . The most important phase of Service Lifecycle. In this phase, Service Design Packages are developed and loaded into the system after testing. Service Transition Phase aims to keep risks at minimum level. Also demands of changing are responsed.

There are some key processes and activities:

  • Service Asset and Configuration Management: Records in service management are kept. System integrity is monitored by performing logical modeling of IT components. Up-to-date and verified information on the status of the service assets and IT infrastructure is also made available to other service management processes. The CMS contains one or more physical configuration management databases.
  • Change Management: Respond to customer changing business requirements and business/IT requests for change that will align the services with the business needs. There are three types of change ; Normal, Standard, Emergeny.

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  • Release and Deployment Management: To build, test and deliver the capabilities (or skills) in accordance with the service design specification in such a way that the service meets the requirements demanded by the stakeholders.
  • Knowledge Management: The aim is to make this technical know-how accessible to all participating service employees with the help of a service knowledge management system (SKMS). Knowledge management system consists four layers; Data, Information integration, Knowledge Processing, Presentation.
  • Transition Planning and Support : The service transition planning and support process ensures the orderly transition of a new or modified service into production, together with the necessary adaptations to the service management processes. This process must incorporate the service design and operational requirements within the transition planning. This essentially involves the management and control of the transition plan. Effective Transition Planning and Support can significantly improve a service provider’s ability to handle high volumes of change and releases across its customer base.
  • Service Validation and Testing:Successful testing depends on understanding the service holistically. The key purpose of service validation and testing is to provide objective evidence that the new/changed service supports the business requirements. The service is tested explicitly against the utilities and warranties set out in the service design package, including business functionality, availability, continuity, security, usability and regression testing.
  • Evaluation:Evaluation is a generic process designed to verify whether or not a specific service is acceptable. Evaluation considers the input to Service Transition, addressing the relevance of the service design, the transition approach itself, and the suitability of the new or changed service for the actual operational and business environments encountered and expected.

 

4) Service Operation:

Aims to use the service provided more efficient and effective. Concerned with ensuring that services operate within agreed parameters. Charged with restoring service as quickly as possible and with minimal impact  to the business.

There are some key processes and activities:

  • Event Management: An event can be defined as a measurable or identifiable occurrence which is relevant to the management of the IT infrastructures and consequently the provision of IT services. Events are typically messages or displays produced by services, configuration items or monitoring tools.

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  • Incident Management: To ensure a properly response to problems of services that are running. Incident management is the process which is responsible for managing the lifecycle of all incidents. The key aim of the incident management is to restore the IT service for the user as quickly as possible. If an incident cannot be resolved quickly, it may be escalated.

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  • Problem Management: Concerned with identification and correction of flaws or errors in the environment which cause incidents. Aims to minimises impact of unavoidable incidents and eliminates recurring incidents. Problem Management Process have two major steps; Reactive Problem Management, Proactive Problem Management.
  • Request Fullfillment: The purpose of Request Fulfillment is to enable users to request and receive standard services, to source and deliver these services, to provide information to users and customers about services and procedures for obtaining them, and to assist with general information, complaints and comments.
  • Access Management: Aims to provide right things for right users at right time. Charged with providing authorized parties with appropriate access to service and information as specified in the information security policy. Executes the information security policy as defined by the information security management process.

 

5)Continual Service Improvement:

Concerned with alignment and realignment of services, processes, functions, etc. With changing business needs. Deals with the consistent application of quality management methods to the overall service management effort. Focuses on process owners and service owners. Ensures that service management processes continue to support the business. Monitor and enhance service level achievements.

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There are some key processes and activities:

  • Service Reporting: A large volume of data relating to the service quality is collected as part of the service delivery and monitoring. The majority of this information is used internally by IT. Only a small portion is of relevance to the business. The business requires the service provider to produce a comparison with previous reporting periods and to rework incidents.

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  • 7Stage Improvement Process: Provides means of using measurement to guide the improvement and correction of service performance.

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